Teaching a New Grade Curriculum

by | Aug 7, 2018 | Teaching Strategies | 0 comments

If you enjoy reading “Teaching a New Grade Curriculum”, please also check out the rest of the “Changing Grade Levels” series.

  1. Teaching a New Grade Curriculum
  2. Teaching Primary School Grades (Lower Elementary)
  3. Teaching Elementary School Grades
  4. Teaching Middle School Grades
  5. Teaching High School Grades

 

If teachers stay in education long enough, they will almost certainly end up teaching in multiple grade levels and/or multiple disciplinary subjects. This post is designed to help teachers making a grade level change by clarifying grade level expectations for achievement, behavior, discipline, and workload.

My brother and I have each spent the 20 odd years teaching with stops at different levels of the education system. This has given us a first-hand look at the differences and similarities between the various grade levels. We will begin by breaking down the transitions to the set stages of education, then go into more detail about each stage by providing specific grade level information.

Stages of the American Education System

These educational stages are defined by developmental levels of both social and academic growth by students, as well as the academic and social expectations set by the system.

Lower Primary Grades K-2

Lower Primary grade levels focus on establishing foundational skills within the curricular disciplines and teaching students social norms and expectations. Learning to read and basic math skills are emphasized. School personnel also works to foster an effective partnership between the school and the parental stakeholders.

Communication between the school and home is usually a weekly routine. Some school systems use communication folders that need parental signatures for weekly exchange of information with stakeholders. Due to a wide range of home settings, students at this stage of education have the widest variety of skill sets and academic/social needs.

AgeGrade LevelReadingWritingSpeakingMathScienceSocial Studies
5,6,7KBe able to identify and discuss the basic elements of a story, including the author and illustrator.Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing be able to express whether or not they liked/disliked a story.Describe places, things, events with illustrations/visuals for support.Count 1-100, write numbers 1-20, be able to express more/less, describe shapes and relative positions.Five Senses, sort things by observable properties, difference between macro- and micro- observation, work with a partner to make a record of observations (pictorial) How to use a timeline, concept of family and how it has changed, holidays and natioinal obeservances, use position words to express location, basic land/water forms, different jobs, what laws are.
6,7,81Know central message/lesson of a story, sensory words, use illustrations to determine story elements, read Grade 1 poetry/prose.Use drawing, dictating, writing to express an opinion on a topic. Edit responses with assistance.Participate in collaborative discussions where students ask questions to achieve deeper understanding.Solve word problems up to quantities of 20, Commutative/Associative Properties of Addition, subtratction as inverse of addition, express equations as true/false. Place Value awareness, add/subtract two-digit numbers to 120. order 3 objects by length, distinguish between defining/non-defining attributes.Make obsevations using the 5 senses, recognize the basic necessities of life, demonstrate different forms of movement, demonstrate how movement may be changed, observe the night sky and apply Law of Gravity.Understand how to use media to find historical answers, understand concept of history, sequentially order events, using map properites locate features within the state, recognize the use/purpose of money, differentiate between rights/responsibilities of citizens.
7,8,92Ask interrogative questoins about a given text, describe structure/point of view as aspects of a text, compare/contrast story elements with illustrations, read Grade 2-3 prose/poetry with scaffolding. Write an opinion about a topic giving supprting reasons and using linking words. Edit collaboratively, participate in shared research/writing projects.Be able to discuss and verify details in oral and media sources.Solve 1- and 2- step word problems in quantities up to 100. Add/subtract with quantities up to 20. Three-digit place value, skip-count by 5, 10, 100 to 1000, base 10 expression, expanded form of numbers, standard/metric lengths, digital/analog time to closest 5-minutes, specifically named shapes.Human body parts, Life Cycle, Electricity, Magnatism, Classification by Property, Earth Geology, Weather, Seasons, providing observable evidence for scientific statements.Native Americans, Colonial America, Basic Symbols of American Democracy, how immigration shaped America then/now. Use political/physical/thematic maps, recognize continents/oceans, limited resources, purpose of government, natural vs naturalized citizen.

Upper Primary Grades 3-5

Upper Primary grade levels begin to move the parent/guardian – school partnership into a more formal arrangement that emphasizes parent involvement in conferences, open houses, and interim reporting of information. Adults begin to expect that students will be responsible for sharing and returning information from the school with their parents. Collaborative teaming and grading are also often introduced at this stage, and students need to adjust to different teaching styles and develop organizational skills.

This stage of academic and social education shifts to developing depth and broadness to the base skills taught in the Lower Primary grades. Academics place more emphasis on the application of prior knowledge, rather than the acquisition of new skills and knowledge. Students also begin to read to learn instead of learning to read.

AgeGrade LevelReadingWritingSpeakingMathScienceSocial Studies
8,9,103Read for facts - myths, fables, folktales. Contextual literal/figurative meanings. Purpose of illustrations. Word analysis, roots, prefixes, suffixes. Grade 2-3 Level without scaffolding.Write point of view using because, therefore, since. Begin using dialogue in narrative. Short research projects with guided editing. Write routinely.Be able to link others' comments in course of discussion. Determine main idea. Report on a topic with relevant, clear facts.Products/quotients of whole numbers. Apply Properties of Operations to multiplication/division. Solve two-step word problems using an unknown variable. Multiplication Tables. Use Base 10 to multiply/divide. Understand/compare whole number denominator fractions. Time to the minute. Graph data. Square units. Perimeter. Similar attributes in different shapes. Divide shapes into fractional parts.Describe structure of/uses for plants. Classify animals. Adaptation to seasonal changes. Basic forms of energy. Observe/measure/compare temperature. Phases of matter. Star classifications. Hypothesize and test natural word ideas.Primary/secondary sources of information. Use maps, tables, charts, photos to analyze geography, map symbols/scale, maps/globes comparison. Political divisions of North America and regional division of United States. Environmental/Resources differences among nations/regions of North America. Scarcity's role in trade. How Constitution establishes government. Levels of government.
9, 10, 114Determine theme of a text by referring directly to the text and with inferences, use context to determine word meaning, connect text with visual representations of it, read level 4-5 with scaffolding. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic. Writing should use concrete supporting details, including quotations. Use dialogue as an element in a story. Write appropriate to task, purpose, audience with editing assistance. Research different aspects of a topic. Write routinely over extended time frames.Participate in collaborative discussions, paraphrase texts read, report on a topic, text, or story.Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, whole number factors 1-100, number/shape patterns. Rounding whole numbers, four-digit operations. Equivalent fractions, add/subtract fractions with like denominators, decimal comparison to hundredths. Relative sizes of measurements within each system. Fractions as measurements, angle measurement. points/segments/rays/angles, parallel/perpendicularSexual reproduction in plants, genes, heredity, seasonal changes in plants. Relationship between forms of energy and motion. Heat transference. Newton's Laws of motion, identify/compare properties of different states of water. Law of Conservation of Mass. Ways material changes. Phases of the moon, Earth's rotation/revolution. Categories of rock, properties of each category. Conduct a natural world experimentation on a theory.Native American Tribal history within the state. Explorers who impacted the state. Effects of technological advancement on the state. State's involvement in the Civil War/Reconstruction. Industrialization within the state through the Spanish-America War. Roaring Twenties causes/effects. Great Depression, World War II. Civil Rights Movement within the state. Physical/cultural/political features of the state. Historical influence on state economy. State Constitution's contents/protections, Branches of Government, local issues impacting the state.
10,11,125Quote accurately from text when supporting the theme, determine contextual meaning for literal/figurative word use, how media impacts the tone of a text, read Grade 4-5 texts independently. Compose point of view, informational, narrative texts using logical sequencing, relevant facts, and domain-specific language. Appropriate to task, purpose, audience with mastery of two-page composition in a single sitting. Participate in collaborative discussions, summarize texts read, report on a topic, text, or story.Parentheses, braces, brackets. Given two rules generate two number patterns, fractional equivalencies of place value in relation to another place value. Fluently multiply/divide four-digit whole numbers. Add/subtract fractions with unlike denominators. Convert measurements from one unit into another. Volume. Coordinate Planes. Human organs and their functions. Regional variations in evolution. Electricity Properties. Solids, Liquids, Gases. Galaxies. Water Cycle. Climate Zones. Empirical Observations in experimentation. American History Periods on a timeline. Ancient Americas Civilizations. Regional Cultural Characteristics of Native Americans. Technological development in the Age of Exploration. Economic/Political/Social differences in the American Colonial Regions. Significant events leading to the American Revolution. Louisiana Purchase, War of 1212, Manifest Destiny, Missouri Compromise. Latitude/Longitude. Development of trade in North America. Creation of US Government - Articles of Confederation, Constitution, Bill of Rights. Federalist/Anti-Federalist. Branches of Government in Constitution. Amendment Process.

Middle Grades 6-8

The Middle Grades are an emotional roller coaster ride. Students are expected to become more independent in their academic studies. However, students in this stage experience a lot of emotional upheaval due to hormones and puberty.  Student behaviors can vary widely because of these emotional issues. Sometimes a great student on Monday is the most disruptive on Tuesday, and, it is not entirely his or her fault.

If that wasn’t difficult enough for a teacher to manage, students are expected to write formally, begin higher mathematics functions, and shift to more self-reliance and accountability in their behavior and academic work. Exchanges between the home and school will vary by family and may, at times, require administrative interventions as the hormonal shifts create just as much tension in the home as they do at school.

AgeGrade LevelReadingWritingSpeakingMathScienceSocial Studies
11,12,136Cite textual evidence of explicit/inferred meaning. Demonstrate how characters develop the plot that focuses on the texts theme. Determine how author's choice of words impacts the meaning. Figurative/connotative meaning. Compare/contrast visual/textual media. Read Grade 6-8 with scaffolding.Argumentative writing using formal language and structure. Collaborate on revision/edit of text. Compose at least 3 pages typed in one sitting. Conduct research with cited sources.Participate in discussions of topic with background research and notes done prior. Link others' comments to responses during the discussion.Ratio/Proportion. Word problems involving quotients of fractions. Use operations for 5-digit numbers. Greatest Common Factor/Least Common Multiple. Positive/Negative numbers in equations. Ordered Pairs/Coordinates. Absolute Value. Us variables to determine sum, difference, product, quotient, factor, coefficient. Area of triangles. Convert word problems to an equation with a variable.Describe patterns of hierarchical organization of organisms. Cell-theory. Linear System with Domains. Law of Conservation of Energy. Measure/Graph distance in relation to time. Weathering, erosion, deposition. Radiation, conduction, convection of heat. Conduct an experiment based on 6th Grade topics.Use longitude/latitude to determine location and relative distances among places on Earth. Geography's impact on civilization development in the ancient world. Family/Ethnic relationships in ancient civilizations. How ancient civilizations compensate for scarcity of resources. Six essential elements of Geography. Factors that increase economic growth. How economic decisions at various levels of society create future nation/city-states. Ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Kush. Historical time divisions. Civilization development Mesopotamia, Egypt, Meso/South America. Ancient Rome and India.
12,13,147Cite textual evidence to develop and contrast different characters' points of view. Compare/contrast textual and visual forms of a given piece of literature. Read and comprehend at the high end of the Grade 6-8 level with scaffolding. Writing informational/argumentative essays should contain precise language with a variety of transitions. Formal writing should take into consideration purpose, audience, and task. Writing Process collaboration. Conduct research projects.Following establishes rules for discussion, participate in a formal deliberation on specific grade level topics. Utilize textual references and previous commentary within the discussion.Compare unit rates of ratios with fractions. Rational numbers and their relationship on a number line. Multiplication/division of rational numbers. Apply operations to linear equations in multi-step, real-world problems. Solve problems with scale drawings of shapes/objects. Circumference. Probability applied to population. Chance based upon statistical probability. Fossil evidence as it relates to evolution. DNA, genotypes, Punnett Squares. Energy transfer among producers, consumers, decomposes. Wavelengths of sunlight. Ways addition/subtraction of heat impacts matter. Layers of the Earth. Explain how scientific knowledge changes over time. Conduct a 7th Grade Level topic project. 50 States and capitals. US Territories. Major US cultural landmarks. Location of US natural resources. Cultural diffusion in North America. Market/Mixed Economy. Federal/State/Local Taxes. International trade. Enlightenment ideas and early influential documents in American History. How the Constitution limits powers of government. Define and evaluate the term citizen of the US. Compare different forms of government. Constitutional Rights - 13, 14, 15, 19, 24, 26 Amendments. Landmark Supreme Court Cases.
13,14,158Cite textual evidence to support explicit/inferred meaning. Determine central idea or theme using character development through plot resolution. Figurative/connotative meaning through word choice determining meaning and tone of text. Compare/contrast textual and multimedia presentations. Read high end Grade 6-8 level texts with scaffolding. Write formal argumentative/informational texts. Establish a context and narrator for narrative essays. Follow the writing process with collaborative revision/editing. Conduct short research projects.Following establishes rules for discussion, participate in a formal deliberation on specific grade level topics. Delineate a speaker's arguments/claims determining which are supported and which are not. Write over extended periods of time. Know and convert irrational numbers with decimal expansions. Square and Cube Roots of real numbers. Graph slope of a line/angle. Solve linear equations with one variable. Function Rules that generate ordered pairs (graph points). Construct a function model (x,y). Rotations, reflections, translations. Pythagorean Theorem. Scatter plots for bi-variate measurement data. Photosynthesis. Atomic theory. Law of Conservation of Mass. Relative location of objects in space and distances between them. Effects of gravitational pull. Electromagnetic spectrum. Science vs. Pseudoscience. Conduct Grade 8 level experiments. Differentiate fact from opinion in historical research. Competition for Colonization of North America. Differentiate New England, Middle and Southern Colonies. French and Indian War causes/impacts. Impacts of British Colonial policies. Contribution of key "Founding Fathers" of the United States. Causes, course, effects of the American Revolution. Foundational Documents of American ideals and government. War of 1812. Westward Expansion. Texas Annexation. Gold Rush. Industrial Revolution. Great Awakening. Women's Suffrage. Civil War causes, course, effects. Reconstruction.

Secondary Underclassmen Grades 9-10

Incoming underclassman vary widely in their academic and social skills. Some secondary underclassmen enter high school still needing to develop basic social and academic survival skills. These students enter freshman year as middle grades students, but they are expected to exit the year as high school students. It is also the last year that most of the parental oversight happens.

These students need to learn how to transition on campus in a timely manner, how to manage academic/social/work time effectively, and how the semester grading system differs from the yearly grading system. They are expected to produce more critical, source-supported writing, analyze both text and visuals critically, and to apply skills from one discipline to another despite each have its own teacher.

AgeGrade LevelReadingWritingSpeakingMathScienceSocial Studies
14,15,169Cite textual evidence to support analysis of the text. Determine theme through literal and figurative meaning in the text. Determine how character interact over the course of the text to develop meaning and tone of text. Compare/contrast textual and multimedia presentations. Read high end Grade 9-10 level texts with scaffolding. Write formal argumentative/information texts.Use precise language and relevant evidence from cited textual sources. Follow the writing process with collaborative revision/editing. Conduct short research projects.Following establishes rules for discussion, participate in a formal deliberation on specific grade level topics. Determine the credibility of each source of information. Write over extended periods of time. Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry
BiologyWold History
15,16,1710Cite textual evidence to support analysis of the text. Determine theme through literal and figurative meaning in the text. Determine how character interact over the course of the text to develop meaning and tone of text. Compare/contrast textual and multimedia presentations. Read high end Grade 9-10 level texts independently. Write formal argumentative/informational texts.Use precise language and relevant evidence from cited textual sources. Follow the writing process with collaborative revision/editing. Conduct short research projects.Following establishes rules for discussion, participate in a formal deliberation on specific grade level topics. Determine the credibility of each source of information. Write over extended periods of time. Algebra II, Geometry, TrigonometryEarth and Space ScienceAmerican History, AP American History

Secondary Upperclassmen Grades 11-12

Upperclassmen are mainly focused on graduating. They tend to be more grade conscious than the underclassmen, but still need reminding of how the semester grading system and graduation GPA works. In the final two grades of school, students are required to read, write, present, and discuss in a much more sophisticated manner. Students who have “slipped through the cracks” will need scaffolding and supports to achieve the required mastery for graduation.

Much of what is done at this level stresses independent accountability and responsibility. However, it is an expectation that needs constant modelling and feedback to develop effectively. The worst thing teachers can do at this stage of education is assume all students have mastered the previous formative skills necessary to participate in the advanced skills being presented by the curriculum.

AgeGrade LevelReadingWritingSpeakingMathScienceSocial Studies
16,17,1811Cite textual evidence to support analysis of the text. Determine theme through literal and figurative meaning in the text. Demonstrate knowledge of 18th, 19th, and 20th Century foundational American Literature. Compare/contrast textual and multimedia presentations. Read high end Grade 11-12 level texts with scaffolding. AP Language and Composition.Write formal argumentative/informational texts.Use precise language and relevant evidence from cited textual sources. Follow the writing process with collaborative revision/editing. Conduct sustained research projects.Following establishes rules for formal discussion, participate in a formal deliberation on specific grade level topics. Determine the credibility of each source of information. Write over extended periods of time. Geometry, Trigonometry, Calculus IPhysicsEconomics, Government, AP Government
17,18,1912Cite textual evidence to support analysis of the text. Determine theme through literal and figurative meaning in the text. Demonstrate knowledge of British and American Literature. Compare/contrast textual and multimedia presentations. Read high end Grade 11-12 level texts independently. AP Literature and Composition.Write formal argumentative/informational texts.Use precise language and relevant evidence from cited textual sources. Follow the writing process with collaborative revision/editing. Conduct sustained research projects.Following establishes rules for formal discussion, participate in a formal deliberation on specific grade level topics. Determine the credibility of each source of information. Write over extended periods of time. Geometry, Trigonometry, Calculus I, Calculus IIPhysics, AP Physics, AP Psychology, AP HumanitiesLaw Studies

Review

Lower Primary focuses on developmental skill foundations and socialization within the school setting.

Upper Primary focuses on expanding upon the developmental foundations and social skills of the Lower Primary.

Middle Grades manages hormonal shifts, while transitioning students from Primary to Secondary academic/behavioral expectations.

Secondary Underclassmen are concerned with establishing required graduation credits, grade point average, and the development of independency skills.

Secondary Upperclassmen are concerned with completing graduation requirements, broadening the academic and social skills needed to advance academically or to succeed in society.

[pinterest_image]

If you enjoyed reading “Teaching a New Grade Curriculum”, please also check out the rest of the “Changing Grade Levels” series.

  1. Teaching a New Grade Curriculum
  2. Teaching Primary School Grades (Lower Elementary)
  3. Teaching Elementary School Grades
  4. Teaching Middle School Grades
  5. Teaching High School Grades

 

Over twenty plus years, my educational career has spanned four continents and two states, as well as eight grade levels!

Read More

Join my monthly email list and get this Reading Comprehension FREEBIETeaching-Ideas-4U-Amy-Mezni-Reading-Comprehension-Questions-cover