Teaching Middle School Grades

by | Aug 28, 2018 | Teaching Strategies | 0 comments

If you enjoy “Teaching Middle School Grades”, please make sure to check out the rest of the “Changing Grade Levels” series.

  1. Teaching a New Grade Curriculum
  2. Teaching Primary School Grades (Lower Elementary)
  3. Teaching Elementary School Grades
  4. Teaching Middle School Grades
  5. Teaching High School Grades

Teachers new to the Middle Grades (6th, 7th, and 8th) will find it’s a wild ride! Students in these grades experience a lot of emotional and social upheaval as they work through puberty. This can be both a challenge and a benefit for teachers. Students are very concerned about their peers and their peers’ opinions, and teachers have to be careful in how they handle situations both in and out of class. Middle Grades students can be very enthusiastic about something that sparks their interest, but equally apathetic about what doesn’t interest them.

Students mature a lot from Sixth to Eighth Grade. As most Middle Grades teachers work in one core subject area, they often have students in multiple grades. It can be interesting to see students grow and change as they move up. Sixth Grade students tend to need more support in switching classes and in coping with the expectations of multiple teachers. By Eighth Grade, many students have matured and grown but mentally and physically. Some students may continue to need support, but a lot of students are better able to cope with multiple teachers, classes, and projects.

In the rest of this post, an overview of each specific grade level is provided, as well as bulleted standards expectations for each of the following disciplines: English Language Arts (ELA), Mathematics (Math), Science (Sci), and Social Science (SS). (The learning expectations are general and may vary a little in each state.)

Middle School – Sixth Grade

Sixth Grade is, depending up your district, either the last grade of Primary or the first grade of Middle School. Expectations for student reading, writing, and mathematic basic skill applications are at the independent level. However, emotionally, many of the students are just beginning puberty and there will be a mix of various stages at sixth grade, enough that they will by physically noticeable to everyone. This adds another dimension to classroom management that most Primary Grades teachers do not encounter.

Sixth Grade students often have a wide range of abilities as well. Some students continue to struggle with academic weaknesses, while other students may be ready for more advanced work. Schedule conflicts drive the Middle Grades, so students that might normally be in advanced classes may be placed in regular class. This can be another challenge for teachers. Teachers need to assess not only student ability levels but also personalities, as social issues can become a distraction in the classroom.

  • ELA –

    • Reading
      • Cite textual evidence in support of analysis of the text’s explicit and inferred meaning; determine a text’s theme or central idea and summarize instead of expressing an opinion; describe plot unfolding including how characters respond or change through plot resolution
      • Determine word/phrase meaning including figurative/connotative meaning while analyzing word choice impact on meaning and tone; analyze how a sentence/chapter/scene/stanza fits into the overall structure and develops the theme/setting/plot; explain how an author develops point-of-view of the narrator or speaker
      • Compare/contrast reading a story/drama/poem to listening/viewing audio/video/live version of the text; compare/contrast different genres (stories, poems, historical novels, fantasy) in how they approach similar themes/topics
      • Proficiently read and comprehend stories, dramas, and poetry at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band with scaffolding as needed
    • Writing
      • Write argumentative and informative texts using formal style including vocabulary, tone, audience, claims, and evidence.
      • Write a narrative on a real or imagined experience; establish a context and narrator; use dialogue and pacing to develop plot; use a variety of transitions and precise language; conclusions should follow narrated experiences
      • Produce clear/coherent writing in which development, organization, style is appropriate to task/purpose/audience; plan, revise, edit, rewrite with some assistance from peers/adults; use technology/internet to produce/publish writing and to interact/collaborate with others with skilled keyboarding of three pages per sitting
      • Conduct short research projects; cite experiences or gather information from print/digital sources making notes that sort evidence into provided categories; draw evidence from literary/informational texts
      • Write routinely over extended time frames (research, reflection, revision) and shorter time frames (discipline-specific tasks, purposes, audiences)
    • Speaking
      • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, groups, teacher-led) as part of a studied text or subject, following agreed-upon rules, asking questions on topic and linking to other’s commentary, demonstrating understanding of the subject; interpret visual, quantitative, and oral main ideas and supporting details of a text or media presentation; delineate a speaker’s argument/claims determining which are supported and not
      • Sequencing ideas logically with pertinent descriptions, facts, and details for main ideas/themes using effective eye contact, volume, and pronunciation
  • Math –

    • Ratios & Proportional Relationships
      • Understand the concept of and define a ratio as a relationship between two quantities; understand a unit rate a/b associated with a ration a:b with b≠0 and use rate language in context; use ratio/rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems (tables, tape diagrams, double number lines diagrams, equations)
    • The Number System
      • Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, solving word problems involving division of fractions by fractions
      • Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using standard algorithm; fluently add, subtract, multiply, divide multi-digit decimals using the stand algorithm; find greatest common factor of two whole numbers < or = to 100, least common multiple of two whole numbers < or = to 12, using distributive property expressing sum of two whole numbers 1-100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole number w/o a common factor
      • Understand positive/negative numbers are used to describe quantities having opposite directions/values, represent quantities in real-world contexts; understand a rational number as a point on the number line, negative numbers as opposites, ordered pairs coordinates, find integers/rational numbers on a coordinate plane; understand ordering/absolute value of rational numbers as used in inequalities, written expressions, relating to order and absolute value; solve real-world/mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants, using coordinates and absolute value to determine distance
    • Expressions & Equations
      • Write/evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-numbered exponents; write/read/evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); apply properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions; identify when two expressions are equivalent
      • Understand solving and equation/inequality as a process of answering a question, applying substitution to determine which; use variables to represent numbers/write expressions when solving real-world/mathematical problem; solve real-world/mathematical problems by writing/solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q where p, q, and x are non-negative rational numbers; write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint/condition in a real-world/mathematical problem, recognizing that infinite solutions may exist
      • Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another, express on quantity as the dependent variable in terms of the other quantity, graphing the relationship
    • Geometry
      • Find area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, polygons by composing into rectangles/decomposing into triangles and other shapes; find the volume of right rectangular prism w/ fractional edge lengths by packing it with appropriate unit cubes using the formula V = lwh and V = Bh; draw polygons in coordinate plane given vertices, find side lengths; represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles to find surface area
    • Statistics & Probability
      • Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question/accounts for it in the answers; understand a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has distribution (center, spread, overall shape); recognize a measure of center for numerical data set summarizes all of its values w/ a single number, measurement of variation describes how values vary with a single number
  • Sci –

    • Life Science
      • Describe/identify patterns in hierarchical organization of organisms (atoms-molecules, cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organisms); investigate/explain components of scientific “cell theory” (single-, multi-celled organisms) with cells the basic unit of life; recognize/explore how cells undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis (extracting energy from food, purging waste, reproduction); compare/contrast structure/function of major organelles of plant/animal cells (cell walls, membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles); identify/investigate functions of major systems of human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, musculoskeletal) and how they interact; compare/contrast types of infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites)
      • Analyze/describe how/why organisms are classified according to shared characteristics (Linnaean system w/ Domains)
    • Physical Science
      • Explore Law of Conservation of Energy differentiating between potential/kinetic energy
      • Measure/graph distance versus time for an object moving at a constant speed and interpret the relationship
      • Investigate/describe types of forces (contact forces, forces at a distance, electrical, magnetic, gravitational); explore Law of Gravity that every object exerts gravitational force that depends upon the mass and distance apart; investigate/describe an unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed, direction of motion, or both
    • Earth and Space Science
      • Describe/give examples of ways in which Earth’s surface is built up/torn down by physical/chemical weathering, erosion, deposition; recognize there are variety of different landforms (coastline, dune, river, mountain, glacier, delta, lake) and relate as applied to the State
      • Differentiate among radiation, conduction, convection of heat; investigate/apply cycling of water between atmosphere/hydrosphere effects weather patterns/climate; describe global patterns (jet stream, ocean currents) can influence local weather (temperature, air pressure, wind direction/speed, humidity, precipitation); differentiate/show interactions among geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, biosphere; explain how solar energy influences global patterns of atmospheric/temperature differences in air, water, land; differentiate between weather/climate; investigate how natural disasters affect human life in state; describe ways humans protect themselves from hazardous weather/sun exposure; describe how composition/structure of atmosphere protects life/insulates planet
    • Nature of Science
      • Define a problem from 6th Grade Curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding while carrying out scientific investigation of various types (observations, experiments, variables, data collection/organization/interpretation) in charts, tables, graphs to analyze, make predictions, and defend conclusions; explain why scientific investigation should be replicable; explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific investigation; discuss, compare, negotiate method used, results obtained, explanations among groups of students in the same investigation; recognize science involves creativity in designing experiments, creating explanations that fit evidence
      • Distinguish science from other activities involving thought; explain scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change due to new evidence, interpretations encountered; recognize scientists who make contributions to scientific knowledge come from all backgrounds, posses varied talents, interests, goals
  • SS

    • Geography
      • Use latitude/longitude coordinates to understand relationship between people/places on Earth; analyze purposes of map projections (political, physical, special) and explain applications of various types; identify natural wonders of the ancient world; utilize tools geographers use to study the world; use scale, cardinal, intermediate directions and estimation of distances between places on current/ancient maps; use map to identify major bodies of water, explain ways they have impacted development of civilizations; use maps to identify characteristics/boundaries of ancient civilizations
      • Explain how major physical characteristics, natural resources, climate, absolute/relative locations influenced settlement, interactions, economies of ancient civilizations; differentiate between continents, regions, countries, cities to understand complexities of regions created by civilizations; analyze relationship of physical geography to development of ancient river valley civilizations; explain how geographical location of ancient civilizations contributed to culture/politics; interpret how geographic boundaries invite/limit interaction w/ other regions/cultures; explain concept of cultural diffusion/identify influences of different ancient cultures on one another; interpret choropleths/dot-density maps to explain distribution of population in the ancient world
      • Explain how physical landscape has affected development of agriculture/industry in the ancient world; analyze impact of human populations on ancient world’s ecosystems
      • Explain how family/ethnic relationships influenced ancient cultures; use maps to trace significant migrations, analyze their results; locate sites in Africa/Asia where archeologists have found evidence of early human societies, trace migration patterns to other parts of the world; map/analyze impact of the spread of various believe systems in the ancient world
      • Identify methods used to compensate for scarcity of resources in the ancient world; use geographic terms/tools to explain why ancient civilizations developed networks (highways, waterways, other transportation); use geographic tools/terms to analyze how famine, drought, natural disasters plagued many ancient civilizations
      • Describe Six Essential Elements of Geography (World in Spatial Terms, Places and Regions, Physical Systems, Human Systems, Environment, Uses of Geography) as organizing framework for understanding the world/people; compare maps of the world in ancient times/ current political maps
    • Economics
      • Identify factors (new resources, increased productivity, education, technology, slave economy, territorial expansion) that increase economic growth; describe/identify traditional/command economies as they appear in different civilizations; describe following economic concepts as they relate to early civilization (scarcity, opportunity cost, supply/demand, barter, trade, productive resources – such as land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship
      • Evaluate how civilizations through clans, leaders, family groups make economic decisions for that civilization providing a framework for future city-state/nation development
      • Identify examples of how mediums of exchange (currencies) used for trade (barter) for each civilization (international trade requires a system for exchange); categorize products traded among civilizations/give examples of barriers to trade; describe traditional economies (Egypt, Greece, Rome, Kush) and elements of those economies that led to the rise of merchant class/trading partners; describe relationship among civilizations engaged in trade, including benefits/drawbacks of voluntary trade
    • World History
      • Use timelines to identify chronological order of historical events; identify (decade, century, epoch, era, millennium, BC/BCE, AD/CE) designations of time periods; interpret primary/secondary sources; describe methods of historical inquiry, how history relates to other social sciences; describe roles of historians & recognize varying historical interpretations (historiography); describe how history transmits culture/heritage and provides models of human character
      • Compare lifestyles of hunter-gatherers w/ settlers of early agricultural communities; describe how developments of agriculture/metallurgy related to settlement, population growth, emergence of civilization; identify characteristics of civilization; compare economic, political, social, religious institutions of ancient river civilizations; summarize important Egyptian civilization achievements; determine contributions of ancient Egypt key figures; summarize important achievements of Mesopotamian civilization; determine impact of ancient Mesopotamian civilization key figures; identify key figures/basic beliefs of Israelites, determine how those beliefs compared with others in the geographic area; compare emergence of advanced civilizations in Meso/South America w/ four early river valley civilizations
      • Analyze cultural impact of ancient Phoenicians on Mediterranean world w/ regard to colonization (Carthage), exploration, maritime commerce (purple dye, tin), written communication (alphabet); explain democratic concepts (polis, civic participation/voting rights, legislative bodies, written constitutions, rule of law) developed in ancient Greece; compare life in Athens/Sparta (government/status of citizens, women, children, foreigners, helots); explain causes/effects of Persian/Peloponnesian Wars; summarize important achievements/contributions of ancient Greek civilization; determine impact of ancient Greek key figures; summarize key achievements/contributions/key figures associated with Hellenistic Period; determine impact of ancient Roman significant figures; explain impact of Punic Wars on Roman Empire development; describe government of Roman Republic, its contribution to development of democratic principles (separation of powers, rule of law, representative government, civic duty); explain transition from Roman Republic to empire (Imperial Rome), compare Roman life under each; explain causes for growth/longevity of Roman Empire; identify key figures/basic beliefs of early Christianity and its impact on Roman Empire; describe key achievements/contributions of Roman civilization; explain reasons for gradual decline of Western Roman Empire following Pax Romana; compare life for patricians, plebeians, women, children, slaves in Roman Republic; explain spread/influence of Latin language on Western Civilization; describe rise/fall of ancient east African kingdoms (Kush, Axum) and Christianity’s development in Ethiopia
      • Discuss significance of Aryan/other tribal migrations on Indian civilization; explain major beliefs/practices associated w/ Hinduism, social structure of caste system in ancient India; recognize political/cultural achievements of Mauryan/Gupta empires; explain teaching of Buddha, importance of Asoka, how Buddhism spread in India, Ceylon, other parts of Asia; summarize important achievements/contributions of ancient Indian civilization; describe concept of Mandate of Heaven, its connection to Zhou/later dynasties; explain basic teachings of Laozi, Confucius, Han Fei Zi; describe contributions of classical/post classical China; identify classical/post classical China key figures; explain significance of silk roads/maritime routes across Indian Ocean to movement of goods/ideas among Asia, East Africa, Mediterranean Basin; explain the rise/expansion of Mongol empire, its effects on peoples of Asia/Europe including achievements of Ghengis/Kublai Khan; identify causes/effects of Chinese isolation/decision to limit foreign trade in 15th century
    • Civics and Government
      • Identify democratic concepts developed in ancient Greece serving as the foundation of American constitutional democracy; identify how Roman Republic government contributed democratic principles (separation of powers, rule of law, representative government, civil duty)
      • Identify principles (civil participation, role of government) from ancient Greek/Roman civilizations reflected in American political processes today, discuss their effect on American political process

Middle School – Seventh Grade

Seventh Grade begins the movement toward more sophisticated academic expectations. Standards and objectives focus more on abstract concepts and ideas than concrete ones. Students are expected to develop inferencing, analysis, and evaluative skills. Socially and emotionally students are still on the roller-coaster ride of early puberty. Just as academic expectations sharply increase, so too does the anxiety over body development and perceptions as well as peer relationships and image. Some students begin to mature, while others do not – and the difference becomes obvious to both teachers and students.

  • ELA –

    • Reading
      • Cite textual evidence in support of analysis of the text’s explicit and inferred meaning; determine a text’s theme or central idea and summarize; analyze how elements of a story/drama interact
      • Determine word/phrase meaning including figurative/connotative meaning while analyzing impact of rhymes/repetitions of sound in a verse/stanza/section of text; analyze how an author develops/contrasts points-of-view of different characters/narrators
      • Compare/contrast a written story/drama/poem to its audio/staged/multi-media version (lighting, sound, color, camera angles); compare/contrast a fictional portrayal of a time/place/character to an historical account of the same time period
      • Proficiently read and comprehend stories, dramas, and poetry at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band with scaffolding as needed
    • Writing
      • Write argumentative and informative pieces with clear claims/topics supported by clear, relevant reasons, ideas, and content.
      • Write a narrative to develop a real or imagined experience or events with relevant details and sequenced events; establish a context and narrator; use dialogue and pacing to develop plot; use a variety of transitions and precise language; conclusions should follow narrated experiences
      • Produce clear/coherent writing in which development, organization, style is appropriate to task/purpose/audience; plan, revise, edit, rewrite with some assistance from peers/adults focusing on purpose and audience are addressed; use technology/internet to produce/publish writing linking cite-sources and to interact/collaborate with others
      • Conduct short research projects to answer a question; gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources generating additional questions for further investigation; draw evidence from literary/informational texts
      • Write routinely over extended time frames (research, reflection, revision) and shorter time frames (discipline-specific tasks, purposes, audiences)
    • Speaking
      • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, groups, teacher-led) as part of a grade 7 topic, text or subject, following agreed-upon rules, asking questions on topic and linking to other’s commentary, demonstrating understanding of the subject; analyze the main ideas/supporting details of diverse media presentation and how they clarify the topic; delineate a speaker’s argument/claims evaluating the soundness of reasoning/relevance and sufficiency of evidence
      • Present claims/findings with salient points in a focused/coherent manner with pertinent descriptions/facts/details/examples using eye contact, volume, pronunciation
  • Math –

    • Ratios & Proportional Relationships
      • Compute unit rates of ratios with fractions (including lengths, areas measured in like/different units; recognize/represent proportional relationships (equivalent ratio tables, graphing coordinate planes, identifying the constant, through equations), explain point (x, y) on a graph to points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r = the unit rate; use proportional relationships to solve multi-step ratio/percent problems
    • The Number System
      • Apply/extend understandings of addition/subtraction to rational numbers represented on a horizontal/vertical number line diagram (opposite numbers = 0, p + q as a distance q from p, subtraction of rational numbers is same as adding inverses p – q = p + (-q), apply operations); apply/extend understandings of multiplication/division to rational numbers (extended from fractions to rational number by distributive property, integers can be divided with divisor ≠ 0, apply operations, convert rational number to a decimal using long division); solve real-world/mathematical problems using the 4 operations w/ rational numbers
    • Expressions & Equations
      • Apply operations to add/subtract/factor/expand linear expressions w/ rational coefficients; understand that rewriting an expression in different forms can show how problem quantities are related
      • Solve multi-step real-life/mathematical problems with positive/negative rational numbers in any form (whole, fractions, decimals) and convert between forms; use variables to represent quantities in problems and construct equations/inequalities (px +q = r and p(x + q) = r, px + q > r or px + q < r)
    • Geometry
      • Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures (lengths, areas); draw (freehand, ruler, protractor, technology) geometric shapes with given conditions (focus on triangles); describe 2D figures resulting from slicing 3D figures (plane sections of prisms)
      • Know formulas for area/circumference of a circle and solve problems, relationship between area/circumference of a circle; use facts about supplementary/complementary/vertical/adjacent angles in multi-step problems writing/solving simple equations for unknown angles; solve problems involving area/volume/surface of 2D and 3D objects (triangles/quadrilaterals/polygons/cubes/right prisms)
    • Statistics & Probability
      • Understand statistics may be used for information about population; use random sample data to draw inferences about population with an unknown characteristic of interest
      • Informally assess degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions w/similar variables (difference between centers expressing it as a multiple of a variability measure); use measures of center/variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal inferences about two populations
      • Understand probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 expressing the likelihood of the event occurring; approximate probability of chance event by collecting data on process that produce it and observe relative frequency and predict approximate relative frequency; develop a probably model to find probabilities of events; find probabilities of compound events (organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, simulation); find probabilities of compound events (organized lists, tables, tree diagram, simulation)
  • Sci

    • Life Science
      • Recognize fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution; explore scientific theory of evolution by recognizing/explaining ways in which genetic variation/environmental factors contribute to evolution through natural selection/diversity of organisms; explore theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species to adapt w/in a changing environment may contribute to extinction
      • Understand/explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in chromosomes of each cell, which pass from one generation to another; determine probabilities for genotype/phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares/pedigrees; compare/contrast general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis; recognize/explore the impact of biotechnology (cloning, genetic engineering, artificial selection) on the individual/society/environment
      • Explain/illustrate roles/relationships among producers, consumers, decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web; compare/contrast relationships among organisms (mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, commensalism); describe/investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and impact on native populations (food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, nesting sites)
    • Physical Science
      • Illustrate the sun’s energy arrives as radiation w/ a wide range of wavelengths (infrared, visible, ultraviolet) and that white light is made up of a spectrum of colors; observe/explain light can be reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed; recognize light/sound waves and others move at different speeds in different materials
      • Recognize adding/removing heat to/from a system may result in a temperature change, possibly a change of state; investigate/describe transformation of energy from one form to another; cite evidence to explain energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another; observe/describe that heat flows in predictable ways (from warmer to cooler objects until they reach the same temperature)
    • Earth and Space Science
      • Describe layers of solid Earth (lithosphere, mantle, metallic liquid/solid cores); identify patterns within rock cycle, relate to surface events (weathering/erosion) and subsurface events (plate tectonics/mountain building); identify current methods for measuring the age of the Earth/its parts (law of superposition, radioactive dating); explain/give examples of how physical evidence support scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time through natural processes; explore scientific theory of plate tectonics (movements of Earth’s crustal plates – including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, mountain building); identify the impact humans have had on Earth (deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air/water quality, changing flow of water); recognize heat flow/movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, creates mountains/ocean basins
    • Nature of Science
      • Define a problem from 7th Grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan/carry out scientific investigation of various types (systematic observations/experiments, identify variables, collect/organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, graphics, analyze information, make predictions, defend conclusions; differentiate replication (by others) from repetition (multiple trials); distinguish between an experiment and other forms of scientific investigation, explain not all scientific knowledge derives from experimentation; identify test variables (independent) and outcome variables (dependent) in an experiment; describe methods used in pursuit of scientific explanation (biology, geology, physics); explain empirical evidence is cumulative body of observations of a natural phenomenon which are the basis; explain scientific knowledge is the result of a great deal of debate/confirmation within the scientific community
      • Identify an instance from history of science in which scientific knowledge has changed due to new evidence/interpretations
      • Recognize/explain difference between theories/laws and give several examples of scientific theories and evidence supporting them; identify benefits/limitations of the use of scientific models
  • SS

    • Geography
      • Locate 50 states and capitals and national capital on a map; locate territories/protectorates of United States of America on a world map; interpret maps to identify geopolitical divisions/boundaries in North America
      • Locate major cultural landmarks emblematic of United States; locate major physical landmarks emblematic of United States; explain how major physical characteristics, natural resources, climate, absolute/relative location have influenced settlement, economies, inter-governmental relations in North America; describe current major cultural North America regions
      • Use maps to describe location, abundance, variety of natural resources in North America
      • Use geographic terms/tools to explain cultural diffusion throughout North America; use maps/other geographic tools to examine importance of demographics within political division of United States
      • Use a choropleth or other map to geographically represent current information about issues of conservation/ecology in the local community
      • Use Geographic Information Systems (GIS)/other technology to view maps of current information about United States
    • Economics
      • Explain how principles of a market/mixed economy helped develop United States in a democratic nation; discuss importance of borrowing/lending in United States, government’s role in controlling financial institutions, list advantages/disadvantages of using credit; review supply/demand, choice, scarcity, opportunity cost related to development of mixed market economy in United States; discuss function of financial institutions in development of market economy; assess how profits, incentives, competition motivate individuals, households, businesses in free market economy; compare national budget process to personal budget process
      • Explain how federal/state/local taxes support economy as a function of United States government; describe banking system in United States, its impact on money supply; identify/describe United States laws/regulations adopted to promote economic competition; identify entrepreneurs from various gender, social, ethnic backgrounds who started a business seeking to make profit; explain how economic institutions impact national economy
      • Explain how international trade requires a system for exchanging currency between/among nations; assess how changing value of currency affects trade of goods/services between nations; compare/contrast single resource economy w/ diversified economy; compare/contrast standard of living in various countries today to United States using gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as an indicator
    • Civics and Government
      • Recognize Enlightenment ideas (Montesquieu’s view of separation of powers, John Locke’s theories on natural law/social contract) influenced the Founding Fathers; trace the impact Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact, Thomas Paine’s Common Sense had on colonists’ views of government; describe how English policies/responses to colonial concerns led to writing of Declaration of Independence; analyze ideas (natural rights, role of government) and complaints set forth in Declaration of Independence; identify how weakness of Articles of Confederation led to writing of Constitution; interpret the intentions of the Preamble of the Constitution; describe how Constitution limits the powers of government (separation of powers, checks and balances); explain viewpoints of the Federalists/Anti-Federalists regarding ratification of Constitution and inclusion of a bill of rights; define rule of law, recognize its influence on development of American legal, political, governmental systems
      • Define term citizen, identify legal means of becoming a United States citizen; evaluate obligations citizens have to obey laws, pay taxes, defend the nation, serve on juries; experience responsibilities of citizens at local/state/federal levels; evaluate rights contained in Bill of Rights/other Amendments to Constitution; distinguish how Constitution safeguards/limits individual rights; simulate trial process/roles of jurors in administration of justice; conduct a mock election demonstrating voting process, its impact on a school/community/locality; identify America’s current political parties, illustrate their ideas about government; evaluate candidate for political office by analyzing qualifications, experience, issue-based platforms, debates, political ads; examine impact of media/individuals/interest groups on monitoring/influencing government; analyze media/political communications (bias, symbolism, propaganda); develop a plan to resolve a state/local problem by researching public policy alternatives, identifying appropriate government agencies to address the issue, determining a course of action; examine multiple perspectives on public/current issues; conduct a service project to further public good
      • Compare different forms of government (direct democracy, representative democracy, socialism, communism, monarchy, oligarchy, autocracy); compare parliamentary, federal, confederal, unitary systems of government; illustrate structure/function (three branches of government in Article I, II, III with corresponding powers) of United States government in the Constitution; identify relationship/division of powers (federal/state governments); explain Constitutional amendment process; evaluate Constitutional rights, their impact on individuals/society; analyze impact of 13th, 14th, 15th, 19th, 24th, 26th, Amendments on participation of minority groups in American political process; analyze the structure, functions, processes of legislative, executive, judicial branches; illustrate law making process at local/state/federal levels; identify sources/types (civil, criminal, constitutional, military) of law; diagram levels, functions, powers of courts at state/federal levels; analyze the significance/outcomes of landmark Supreme Court cases (Marbury v. Madison, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Gideon v. Wainwright, Miranda v. Arizona, In re Gault, Tinker v. Des Moines, Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier, United States v. Nixon, Bush v. Gore, et. al.); compare constitutions of United States/your state; differentiate between local/state/federal governments’ obligations/services

Middle School – Eighth Grade

Eighth Grade is otherwise known as Seniors version 1.0. These students are usually the oldest of the Middle Grades and are given higher expectations for behavior, social interaction, and academic performance. As such, they are given some privileges that the other Middle Grade students are not. Schools often attempt to simulate Secondary School conditions and expectations at this level.

There will be significant differences in attitude and maturity between the Seventh and Eighth Grade students. Although not fully developed adults at this stage, they will perceive that they have reached the top of the social ladder and young adult behavior – dating, bullying, click-forming – occur frequently in this grade. Hygiene is going to be a bit different as most of the male students will have entered puberty by this grade, making both male and female students susceptible to hormonal swings and undesirable skin appearance and body odor. Be prepared with a stash of emergency hygienic supplies for needed occasions. (Teachers who are sensitive to perfumes and strong scents may need to make a special plea at the beginning of the year asking students to hold off on strong scents.)

  • ELA –

    • Reading
      • Cite textual evidence in support of analysis of the text’s explicit and inferred meaning; determine a text’s theme or central idea and summarize instead of expressing an opinion; describe plot unfolding including how characters respond or change trough plot resolution
      • Determine word/phrase meaning including figurative/connotative meaning while analyzing word choice impact on meaning and tone; analyze how a sentence/chapter/scene/stanza fits into the overall structure and develops the theme/setting/plot; explain how an author develops point-of-view of the narrator or speaker
      • Compare/contrast reading a story/drama/poem to listening/viewing audio/video/live version of the text; compare/contrast different genres (stories, poems, historical novels, fantasy) in how they approach similar themes/topics
      • Proficiently read and comprehend stories, dramas, and poetry at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band with scaffolding as needed
    • Writing
      • Write argumentative and informative using formal style including vocabulary, tone, audience, claims, and evidence.
      • Write a narrative on a real or imagined experience; establish a context and narrator; use dialogue and pacing to develop plot; use a variety of transitions and precise language; conclusions should follow narrated experiences
      • Produce clear/coherent writing in which development, organization, style are appropriate to task/purpose/audience; plan, revise, edit, rewrite with some assistance from peers/adults; use technology/internet to produce/publish writing and to interact/collaborate with others with skilled keyboarding of three pages per sitting
      • Conduct short research projects; cite experiences or gather information from print/digital sources making notes that sort evidence into provided categories; draw evidence from literary/informational texts
      • Write routinely over extended time frames (research, reflection, revision) and shorter time frames (discipline-specific tasks, purposes, audiences)
    • Speaking
      • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, groups, teacher-led) as part of a studied text or subject, following agreed-upon rules, asking questions on topic and linking to other’s commentary, demonstrating understanding of the subject; interpret visual, quantitative, and oral main ideas and supporting details of a text or media presentation; delineate a speaker’s argument/claims determining which are supported and not
      • Sequencing ideas logically with pertinent descriptions, facts, and details for main ideas/themes using effective eye contact, volume, and pronunciation
  • Math –

    • The Number System
      • Know irrational numbers with decimal expansions and convert from decimal to irrational; use rational approximations for irrational numbers to compare irrationals and approximately locate on a number line diagram
    • Expressions & Equations
      • Know/apply properties of integer exponents generating equivalent numerical expressions; use square root/cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x2 = p and x3 = p where p is a positive real number, evaluating perfect squares/cubes roots; use expressions in the form of single-digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large/small quantities; perform operations with numbers in scientific notation, including where both decimal/scientific notation are used
      • Graph proportional relationships, including unit rate as a slope; use similar triangles to explain slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane (y = mx for a line through the origin and y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b)
      • Solve linear equations in one variable (x = a, a = a, or a = b) with rational number coefficients with solutions using distributive property; analyze/solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations (solutions correspond to points of intersection that satisfy both linear equations, therefore problems such as 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution, solve real-world/mathematical problems using simultaneous linear equations
    • Functions
      • Understand a function is a rule that assigns one output to each input (ordered pairs); compare properties of two functions represented in different ways (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, verbal descriptions); interpret y = mx + b as a linear function whose graph is a straight line
      • Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities (rate of change, initial value from x, y values on tables, graphs); describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph and sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features
    • Geometry
      • Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, translations (for lines, angles, parallel lines); understand that 2D figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by rotation(s), reflection(s), translation(s); describe effects of dilations, translations, rotations, reflections on 2D figures using coordinates; understand that 2D figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, dilations; use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum/exterior angle of triangles, angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles
      • Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse; apply Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world/mathematical problems in 2D/3D; apply Pythagorean Theorem to find distance between two points in a coordinate system
      • Know formulas for volumes of cones, cylinders, spheres and use to solve real-world/mathematical problems
    • Statistics & Probability
      • Construct/interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities (clustering, outliers, positive/negative association, linear/nonlinear association); know straight lines are used to model relationships between two quantitative variables and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line; use equation of a linear model to solve problems in context of bivariate measurement data (slope, intercept); understand patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies/relative frequencies in two-way tables constructing/interpreting them on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects
  • Sci

    • Life Science
      • Describe/investigate process of photosynthesis (role of light, carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll), production of food, release of oxygen; describe/investigate how cellular respiration breaks down food to provide energy/release carbon dioxide; construct scientific model of carbon cycle to show matter/energy are continuously transferred within/between organisms/physical environment; cite evidence living systems follow Laws of Conservation of Mass/Energy
    • Physical Science
      • Explore scientific theory of atoms (atomic theory) using models to explain motion of particles in solids, liquids gases; differentiate between weight/mass recognizing weight is amount of gravitational pull distinct, but proportional to mass; explore/describe densities of various materials through measurement of mass/volume; classify/compare substances on basis of characteristic physical properties demonstrated/measured (density, thermal/electric conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting/boiling points) independent of the sample amount; recognize a finite number of elements and their atoms combine in a multitude of ways to produce all living/nonliving compounds/things we encounter; recognize elements are grouped in periodic table according to similarities/properties; explore scientific theory of atoms (atomic theory) recognizing atoms are the smallest unit of an element composed of sub-atomic particles (electrons, protons, neutrons); identify basic examples/compare/classify properties of compounds (acids, bases, salts); distinguish among mixtures (solutions)/pure substances
      • Explore Law of Conservation of Mass demonstrating/concluding mass is conserved when substances undergo physical/chemical change; differentiate between physical/chemical changes; investigate/describe how temperature influences chemical changes
    • Earth and Space Science
      • Recognize there are enormous distances between objects in space, apply knowledge of light/space travel to understand; recognize the universe contains billions of galaxies, each contains billions of stars; distinguish hierarchical relationships between planets, astronomical bodies relative to solar system, galaxy, universe (distance, size, composition); explore Law of Universal Gravitation explaining role that gravity plays in formation of planets, stars, solar systems and determining their motions; describe/classify specific physical properties of stars: magnitude (brightness), temperature (color), size, luminosity (absolute brightness); create models of solar properties: rotation/structure of Sun, convection, sunspots, solar flares, prominences; compare/contrast properties of objects in the Solar System: Sun, planets, moons to those of Earth (gravitational force, distance from Sun, speed, movement, temperature, atmospheric conditions); compare various historical models of Solar System (geocentric/heliocentric); explain impact of objects in space on each other (Sun on Earth – Seasons/Gravitational Attraction, Moon on Earth – phases, tides, eclipses, relative positions); assess how technology is essential to science for access to outer space/remote locations, sample collection, measurement, data collection/storage, computation, communication of information; identify/compare characteristics of electromagnetic spectrum (wavelength, frequency, use, hazards) and recognize its application to understanding planetary images/satellite photographs; summarize the effects of space exploration on the economy/culture of the state
    • Nature of Science
      • Define a problem, use appropriate reference materials from 8th Grade Curriculum, plan/carry out scientific investigations of various types (systematic observations, experiments requiring identification of variables, collecting/organizing data, interpreting data in charts/tables/graphs, analyze information, make predictions, defend conclusions); design/conduct a study using repeated trials/replication; use phrases such as “results support” or “fail to support” in science acknowledging science does not offer conclusive proof of a knowledge claim; explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations even if not supported by the data; analyze methods used to develop scientific explanation in different fields of science; understand that scientific investigations involve collection of relevant empirical evidence, use of logical reasoning, application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations, models to make sense of collected evidence
      • Distinguish between scientific/pseudoscientific ideas; discuss what characterizes science and its methods
      • Select models useful in relating results of their own investigations; explain why theories may be modified but are rarely discarded
      • Explain that science is one of the processes that can be useful to inform decision making at the community, state, national, and international levels; explain how political, social, economic concerns can affect science, vice versa
  • SS

    • American History
      • Provide supporting details for an answer from text, interview or oral history, check validity of information from research/text, identify strong vs. weak arguments; analyze charts/graphs/maps/photographs/timelines/political cartoons to determine cause/effect; analyze current events relevant to American History topics through variety of electronic/print media; differentiate fact from opinion utilizing appropriate historical research, fact/fiction support materials; identify within primary/secondary sources (author, audience, format, purpose) of significant historical documents; compare interpretations of key events/issues throughout American History; view historic events through the eyes of those who were there as shown in their art, writings, music, artifacts
      • Compare relationships among British, French, Spanish, Dutch in the struggle for colonization of North America; compare characteristics of New England, Middle, Southern colonies; differentiate economic systems of New England, Middle, Southern colonies (indentured servants/slave labor); identify impact of key colonial figures on economic, political, social development of the colonies; discuss impact of colonial settlement on Native Americans; examine causes, course, consequences of French and Indian War; describe contributions of key groups (Africans, Native Americans, women, children) to society/culture of colonial America
      • Explain consequences of French and Indian War in British policies for the American colonies (1763-1774); explain American colonial reaction to British policy (1763-1774); recognize contributions of Founding Fathers (John Adams, Sam Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Mason, George Washington) during American Revolution; examine contributions of influential groups to both American/British war efforts during the American Revolution and their effects on the outcome; describe the influence of individuals on social/political developments during the Revolution; examine causes, course, consequences of the American Revolution; examine structure/content/consequences of Declaration of Independence; examine individuals/groups that affected political/social motivations during the American Revolution; evaluate structure, strengths, weaknesses of Articles of Confederation leading to Constitutional Convention; examine course/consequence of Constitutional Convention (New Jersey Plan, Virginia Plan, Great Compromise, Three-Fifths Compromise, compromises on taxation/slave trade/Electoral College/state vs. federal power/empowering a president); analyze support/opposition (Federalists, Federalist Papers, Anti-Federalists, Bill of Rights) to ratification of US Constitution; examine influences of George Washington’s presidency in formation of the new nation; explain major domestic/international economic/military/political/socio-cultural events of John Adams’ presidency; explain major domestic/international economic/military/political/socio-cultural events of Thomas Jefferson’s presidency; examine (1763-1815) from the perspective of historically under-represented groups (children, indentured servants, Native Americans, slaves, women, working class); examine key events in state history as each impacts this era of American history
      • Examine causes/course/consequences of United States westward expansion/growing diplomatic assertiveness (War of 1812, Convention of 1818, Adams-Onis Treaty, Missouri Compromise, Monroe Doctrine, Trail of Tears, Texas annexation, Manifest Destiny, Oregon Territory, Mexican-American War/Mexican Cession, California Gold Rush, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Gadsden Purchase); describe the debate surrounding spread of slavery into western territories and the state; examine experiences/perspectives of significant individuals/groups during this era of American history; discuss impact of westward expansion on cultural practices/migration patterns of Native American/African slave populations; explain causes/course/consequences of 19th century transportation revolution on growth of national economy; identify technological improvements (inventions/inventors) that contributed to industrial growth; explain causes/course/consequences (industrial growth, subsequent effect on children/women) of New England’s textile industry; describe influence of individuals on social/political developments of this era in American history; analyze causes/course/consequences of Second Great Awakening on social reform movements; analyze impact of technological advancements on agricultural economy/slave labor; examine aspects of slave culture (plantation life, resistance efforts, role of slaves’ spiritual system); examine effects of 1804 Haitian Revolution on United States acquisition of Louisiana Territory; explain consequences of landmark Supreme Court decisions (McCulloch v. Maryland [1819], Gibbons v. Odgen [1824], Cherokee Nation v. Georgia [1831], Worcester v. Georgia [1832]) significant to this era of American history; examine causes/course/consequences of women’s suffrage movement (1848 Seneca Falls Convention, Declaration of Sentiments); examine causes/course/consequences of literature movements (transcendentalism) significant this era of American history; identify key ideas/influences of Jacksonian democracy; examine key events/peoples in state history as each impact this era of American history; Examine experiences/perspectives of different ethnic/national/religious groups in state, explaining contributions to state/American society/culture during Territorial Period
      • Explain causes/course/consequences of Civil War (sectionalism, slavery, states’ rights, balance of power in the Senate); analyze role of slavery in development of sectional conflict; explain major domestic/international economic/military/political/socio-cultural events of Abraham Lincoln’s presidency; identify the division (Confederate/Union States, Border states, western territories) of the United States at the outbreak of Civil War; compare Union/Confederate strengths/weaknesses; compare significant Civil War battles/events and effects on civilian populations; examine key events/peoples in state history as each impacts this ere of American history; explain/evaluate policies/practices/consequences of Reconstruction (presidential/congressional reconstruction, Johnson’s impeachment, Civil Rights Act of 1866, 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments, opposition of Southern whites to Reconstruction, accomplishments/failures of Radical Reconstruction, presidential election of 1876, end of Reconstruction, rise of Jim Crow laws, rise of Ku Klux Klan)
    • Geography
      • Use maps to explain physical/cultural attributes of major regions throughout American history; use appropriate geographic tools/terms to identify/describe significant places/regions in American history
      • Identify physical/human elements that define/differentiate regions as relevant to American history; use geographic terms/tools to analyze case studies of regional issues in different parts of United States having critical economic/physical/political ramifications; use geographic terms/tools to analyze case studies of how selected regions of the US have changed over time
      • Locate/describe in geographic terms major ecosystems of US; use geographic terms/tools to explain differing perspectives on use of renewable/non-renewable resources in US and state over time
      • Interpret population growth/other demographic data for any given place in the US throughout its history; use geographic terms/tools to analyze effects throughout American history of migration to/within the US, on place of origin/destination; use geographic terms/tools to explain cultural diffusion throughout the US as it expanded; interpret databases, case studies, maps to describe role that regions play influencing trade, migration patterns, cultural/political interaction in US throughout time; use geographic terms/tools to analyze case studies of development/growth/changing nature of cities/urban centers in US over time; use political maps to describe changes in boundaries/governance throughout American history
      • Describe human dependence on physical environment/natural resources to satisfy basic needs in local environments in the US; describe impact of human modifications on physical environment/ecosystems of the US throughout history
      • Use appropriate maps/other graphic representations to analyze geographic problems /changes over time throughout American history; illustrate places/events in US history through use of narratives/graphic representations
    • Economics
      • Examine motivating economic factors influenced development of US economy over time (scarcity, supply and demand, opportunity costs, incentives, profits, entrepreneurial aspects)
      • Analyze contributions of entrepreneurs/inventors/other key individuals from various gender/social/ethnic backgrounds in development of US economy; explain economic impact of government policies; assess role of Africans/other minority groups in economic development of the US
      • Evaluate domestic/international interdependence
    • Civics and Government
      • Identify constitutional provisions for establishing citizenship; compare views of self-government and rights/responsibilities of citizens (Patriots, Loyalists, other colonists); recognize role of civic virtue in lives of citizens/leaders from colonial period-Reconstruction; identify evolving forms of civic/political participation from colonial period-Reconstruction; apply right/principles contained in Constitution and Bill of Rights to lives of citizens today; evaluate how amendments to Constitution have expanded voting rights from our nation’s early history-present day
      • Evaluate/compare essential ideas/principles of American constitutional government expressed in primary sources from colonial period-Reconstruction
    • Financial Literacy
      • Explain careers are based on working at jobs in the same occupation/profession for many years, differentiating education/training required by various careers; identify many decisions people must make over a lifetime about education/jobs/careers that affect income/job opportunities; explain getting more education/learning new job skills can increase person’s human capital/productivity; examine fact that people with less education/fewer job skill tend to earn lower incomes; examine fact investment in education/training has positive rate of return in income people earn over a lifetime; identify opportunity costs education/training/development of job skills have in terms (time, effort, money); identify interest/dividends/capital appreciation (gains) are forms of income earned from financial investments; discuss fact that some people receive income support from government due to low incomes/qualify in other ways for government assistance
      • Explain when deciding purchases, consumers may choose to gather information from a variety of sources; analyze source’s incentives in providing information about a good/service, how a consumer can better assess quality/usefulness of the information; describe variety of payment methods for buying goods/services; examine choosing payment method by weighing costs/benefits of different payment options; discuss fact people may revise budget based on unplanned expenses/changes in income
      • Explain banks/other financial institutions loan funds received from depositors to borrowers, part of the interest received is used to pay interest to depositors for use of their money; explain that, for savings, interest rate is the price a financial institution pays for using a saver’s money, expressed as APR of the amount saved; discuss interest rates paid on savings/charged on loans are determined in a market; explain when interest rates increase, people earn more on savings; identify principal as initial amount of money upon which interest is paid; identify value of person’s savings in future as determined by amount saved plus the interest rate, the importance of beginning to save early; discuss different reasons people save money (large purchases, retirement, unexpected events); explain how the federal agencies guarantee depositors/ savings in most commercial banks/savings banks/savings associations up to a certain amount (FDIC)
      • Explain people who apply for loans are told what interest rate on the loan will be; identify credit card purchase as a loan from the issuer of the card who charges interest that is usually higher than traditional loans; examine fact borrowers using credit cards for purchases who do not pay the full balance when due, pay much higher costs for their purchases; explain lenders charge different interest rates based on the risk of nonpayment by borrowers
      • Describe differences among types of financial assets (bank deposits, stocks, bonds, mutual funds); calculate interest income received from depositing certain amount of money at 1% per year, owning a bond paying 5% per year in comparison; discuss when people buy corporate stock, purchasing ownership shares in a business when profitable will receive dividends and increased stock value called capital gains; explain price of a financial asset determined by interaction of buyers/sellers in a financial market; explain rate of return earned will vary according to amount of risk
      • Analyze personal financial risk exists when unexpected events can damage health/income/property/wealth/future opportunities; identify insurance as a product allowing people to pay a fee (premium) now to transfer costs of a potential loss to a third party; describe how a person may self-insure by accepting risk/saving money on a regular basis to cover potential loss; discuss why insurance policies guaranteeing higher levels of payment for coverage have higher prices; discuss insurance companies charge higher premiums to cover higher-risk individuals/events because the risk of monetary loss is greater; explain individual can choose to accept some risk, to take steps to avoid or reduce risk, or transfer risk to others through insurance with each option have different benefits; evaluate social networking sites/other online activity from perspective of making individuals vulnerable to harm caused by identity theft/misuse of personal information

Review

The Middle Grades is a rollercoaster of emotions for both students and teachers. Student attitudes vary widely day to day as they go through puberty. They can be very up and down, and their attitude affects class activities. Students are more concerned about the opinions of their peers than those of adults, so this can become a battle. Teachers need to carefully deal with behavior issues that occur both inside and out of class.

Academic abilities will vary widely in classes, especially as students as placed in classes because that is the only way to fill their schedule. Teachers can not necessarily expect that their honors classes are full or “honors” students, or that students in their regular period do not need academic extensions.

Student maturity levels vary widely in the Middle Grades, but by Eighth Grade many students have matured and seem more settled than the other students.

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If you enjoyed “Teaching Middle School Grades”, please make sure to check out the rest of the “Changing Grade Levels” series.

  1. Teaching a New Grade Curriculum
  2. Teaching Primary School Grades (Lower Elementary)
  3. Teaching Elementary School Grades
  4. Teaching Middle School Grades
  5. Teaching High School Grades

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